Refers to two-spirited people, i.e. those who identify themselves as having both a masculine and a feminine, non-binary mind. It is used by some Indigenous Peoples to describe their sexual, gender and/or spiritual identity.


Acronyms grouping together various terms designating non-normative practices and identities relating to sexual orientation, gender identity and gender expression.


Ability diversity

Refers to the diversity of D/deaf, disabled and neurodivergent persons. Like the concise expressions
“sexual diversity” and “cultural diversity,” the term “ability diversity” makes it possible to designate a set of people who have a multitude of different identities without having to name each one (Canada Research Chair on Cultural Citizenship of Deaf People and Cultural Equity Practices).


Ableism is a form of discrimination or negative attitude toward persons with disabilities.

Access fees

This term refers to the costs that some populations, especially disabled or Deaf populations, must shoulder in order to benefit from the programs and services offered by an institution or in order to create, produce or disseminate their art.

Reimbursing a portion of these fees could be one solution to the financial disadvantages caused by social norms that serve to block access.


A range of factors that affect a person’s ability to fully participate in an environment.

Affirmative action measures

A measure aimed at a minority group (specific target group) with the objective of reducing, eliminating or compensating for disadvantages suffered by the group so that its members can fully participate in the process of artistic research, creation, production and dissemination.

Allophone person or group

Person or group that, in a given region, has a primary language (native language, mother tongue, or primary spoken language) that is not the official language, or one of the official languages, of that region. In Canada, this term is used for someone whose first language is neither English nor French.

Source: Official Languages Act

Amateur artistic practice

Pastime involving projects or activities undertaken for pleasure, passion or with the goal of improving one’s quality of life.

Michel Bellefleur identified two types of cultural leisure activities: 1) The loisir impressif (impressive leisure), which someone practices by attending shows or expositions, or by gazing contemplatively at works in museums or in galleries; 2) The loisir expressif (expressive leisure, or amateur artistic practice), in which someone actively engages in a continued practice, as an amateur, in an artistic field.

Source (in French): Pratique artistique amateur | La médiation culturelle à la Ville de Montréal


The process of understanding how systems of oppression such as colonialism, racism, sexism, homophobia, transphobia, classism and ableism can lead to individual discriminatory actions and systemic inequalities affecting certain social groups. Anti-oppressive practices and goals seek to recognize and dismantle these discriminatory actions and power imbalances.

Artificial intelligence (AI)

Scientific and technological field that leverages the capabilities of machines to mimic the operations or logic of the human brain. This includes cognitive functions, but also robotic devices giving machines the possibility to accomplish tasks that, until that point, were believed to only be possible through the use of human intelligence.

While AI opens up an enormous field of research and possibilities for many innovative new experiments with implications for various fields (academic, mathematics, medical, etc.) and sectors (industrial, artistic, etc.), it also brings up social and ethical questions, such as the sharing of personal data, copyright, privacy, etc.

Artistic excellence

Collection of factors that contribute to the enrichment and development of the artist’s discipline, as well as the development of the communities to which the artist belongs or is addressing.

Artistic mapping

Any action or initiative that serves to locate, outline, and identify a new practice, production or artistic approach in the field.

Artistic team

Group of people who create, interpret, develop or direct artistic works, or assist in the direction of these works, or who oversee programming, editing or rehearsals, such as playwrights, curators, authors, rehearsal coaches.

Artists’ collective

One-time collaboration that brings together at least two professional artists for the purpose of carrying out a joint project requiring complementary practices, knowledge and expertise.

A collective is not a legal entity and includes a project lead who acts on behalf of the collective.

Arts residency

Structure in which creators are invited to immerse themselves in a community or environment, accompanied by technical support, human resources and related expertise.

Audio description or described video

Verbal description of visual aspects of a piece in order to make films, shows, exhibitions or any other form of creation accessible to blind or low vision individuals.


Audism is a form of discrimination or a negative attitude toward D/deaf and hard of hearing people.

A normative system that subordinates deaf and hard of hearing people through a set of practices, actions, beliefs and attitudes that value hearing people and their ways of life (for example, hearing and speaking), to the detriment of a diversity of ways of moving and (sign) languages.



Designed or planned to be accessible to D/deaf people and people with disabilities.


Businesses in Quebec can operate under a variety of legal structures. Here is a brief description of the legal business structures targeted by the Conseil des arts de Montréal’s programs.

Professional association

Legally established association of artists working in the same field for the purpose of defending their professional and socioeconomic interests and which operates in accordance with the accreditation granted by the Commission de reconnaissance des associations d’artistes et des associations de producteurs (CRAAAP) or the Quebec Commission des relations de travail (CRT).

This type of association must be incorporated in accordance with all laws that regulate the status of artists in Quebec and fulfill the associative functions contained within such regulations. For example, it must collect annual dues from its members.

Source : Lexique CALQ.


Legally incorporated group of individuals whose members share common economic, social or cultural needs and who come together for the purpose of addressing them by means of a business founded in accordance with the rules of cooperative action.

Sole-proprietor business

Individually-owned business operated by one person who is often an independent contractor or freelancer. This type of business has no legal existence, status or assets other than those of its owner.

When someone operates an individually-owned business, we often think of them as “working for themselves.” As the sole proprietor of the business, they are able to retain all the profits but are also responsible for absorbing any losses.

Non-profit organization (NPO)

Legally incorporated group of individuals that operates without generating profits in the following domains, among others: cultural, social, philanthropic, national, patriotic, religious, charitable, scientific, artistic, professional, athletic, sports, or academic



Legally incorporated group of individuals whose members share common economic, social or cultural needs and who come together for the purpose of addressing them by means of a business founded in accordance with the rules of cooperative action. Its members may receive patronage dividends or share the profits of the cooperative based on their use of available services. Only cooperatives that do not pay out dividends to their members are eligible to participate in the Conseil des arts de Montréal’s programs.

Crip time

Derived from the reappropriation of the insult “cripple,” the concept of crip time challenges the standard conception of time by highlighting the demands placed on people living with disability.

“Crip time” is an emancipatory concept that describes the results of a slower gait, malfunctioning equipment (from wheelchairs to hearing aids), a bus driver who refuses to stop for a disabled passenger, or an ableist encounter with a stranger that throws one off schedule.

Critical Disability Studies

The study of how dominant ableist norms and structures construct and regulate bodies/minds seen as desirable, normal and legitimate and those deemed undesirable, abnormal and illegitimate.


Also known as “participatory fundraising,” this practice involves funding a project by reaching out to a large number of people via Web platforms. The goal is to have a project that benefits from community support and is made possible by a large number of individual donations, even if those donations are small.

In Quebec, this method is not regulated and is often used to fund artistic, cultural or humanitarian projects.

Sources (in French): Entreprises Québec and Qu’est-ce que le financement participatif?, La Ruche.

Cultural appropriation

Out-of-context use, borrowing or transformation of elements (writings, symbols, concepts, knowledge, rituals, signs, customs, life experience, etc.) belonging to a racialized, marginalized or oppressed culture by a member of the dominant culture.

This is done without authorization, in a manner that can be seen as offensive, abusive or inappropriate and that harms the culture of origin by divorcing the appropriated element from its essence by its dilution and by falsely presenting an ersatz element as if it were genuine.

Sources (In French): Appropriation culturelle et les peuples autochtones: Entre protection du patrimoine et liberté de création, GRIAAC and United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, United Nations, March 2008 (article 11)

Cultural diversity

Cultural diversity is made manifest not only through the varied ways in which the cultural heritage of humanity is expressed, augmented and transmitted through the variety of cultural expressions, but also through diverse modes of artistic creation, production, dissemination, distribution and enjoyment, whatever the means and technologies used.

Source: Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions, UNESCO, 2005, p.7

In this context, this term refers to the different minorities within society and their contribution to the common culture. Cultural diversity in the arts mainly involves the participation of ethnic minority and visible minority artists and artists with diverse artistic practices in the cultural life of Montréal.

The inclusion of culturally diverse communities is a question of equity. Organizations must ensure that these artists have the same access to resources and the same opportunities for recognition, contribution and development as artists from the dominant culture.

Cultural exchange project

One-time project that could take place at a national or international level which has a structuring effect on the development of an organization or sector’s activities.

Cultural institution

Non-profit organization (NPO) whose mission, role and responsibilities are recognized by the public, artistic communities and the government as providing essential structures to artistic life. Cultural institutions are given special status and funding to ensure the accomplishment of their mission and continued operations.

Organizations that can benefit from cultural institution status are those that produce and plan annual activities in accordance with their mission and have a year-round artistic director. Government or semipublic organizations, professional associations, for-profit organizations, festivals, one-time events and science museums are excluded.

Cultural mediation

Implementation of cultural action strategies that foster communication and encounters between citizens and cultural or artistic communities. In line with this, we place an emphasis on the implementation of methods for accompaniment, creation and intervention that value diverse forms of cultural expression and participation in cultural life for the benefit of local populations and publics.

In short, the goal is to increase and strengthen the public’s access to the means of individual and collective creation (cultural democracy) and to professional cultural works (cultural democratization).

Source: La médiation culturelle, Montréal (In French)

Cultural worker

Professional working in the arts who has or has had a managerial, leadership or administrative role involving communications or coordination.

Cultural worker

Professional working in the arts who has or has had a managerial, leadership or administrative role involving communications or coordination.

Culturally diverse artists

Artists belonging to an ethnic or visible minority and/or who have a minority, non-western or mixed artistic practice

Culturally diverse artists’ collective

A collective mainly composed of artists belonging to an ethnic or visible minority. Such a collective is a one-time collaboration that reflects the practices of culturally diverse artists and brings together at least two professional artists for the purpose of carrying out a joint project requiring complementary practices, knowledge and expertise.

A collective is not a legal entity and includes a person responsible for the project who acts on behalf of the collective.

Culturally diverse arts organization

Organization within which the full-time artistic team is majority culturally diverse, or which presents, on a regular basis and as a primary activity, artworks reflecting a practice that is non-Western, culturally mixed, or otherwise informed by non-dominant cultures.

Culture of philanthropy

Refers to a set of behaviours, attitudes and methods that improve quality of life in a society through volunteering, mutual aid, financial donations and social innovation. Donations can include money, goods, time or expertise, all in the interest of helping society.

Source (in French): Contribuer à l’avancement de la culture philanthropique, Institut Mallet


Data collection

The Conseil provides for a regular review of its affirmative action measures, including the implementation of mechanisms (e.g., self-identification and self-assessment) to collect disaggregated,
reliable and anonymized data that respect all rights protected under the Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms.

The Conseil also provides for appropriate accountability mechanisms, including publishing anonymized data that it collects in its annual reports.


Term describing a person who identifies as hard-of-hearing, Deaf, oral deaf, Deaf-blind or deafened. Many Deaf people identify with Deaf culture, despite using different sign languages, because of their shared traditions, history and values.

The word “Deaf” with a capital “D” refers to a number of different lived experiences, ranging from culturally Deaf individuals to hard-of-hearing individuals or people who use both oral and visual means of communication.

Source : Canadian Association of the Deaf


Coined in 2003 by deaf researcher Paddy Ladd, the concept of Deafhood “emphasizes the existential position of deaf people rather than deafness as a pathology or physical condition.”


A process of emancipation based on territorial, cultural, psychological and economic freedom for Indigenous Peoples, with the aim of achieving sovereignty. Colonialism is a historical and ongoing global project in which settlers occupy land, dictate social, political and economic systems, and exploit Indigenous Peoples and their resources.

Digital art

Artistic approach that makes use of electronic or digital material as a physical base element. This material is essential to exploring, designing, executing and diffusing the project, production or work. For example: multimedia projections, network art touching on connectivity and performance, audio and sound art, immersive bio-art installations, virtual reality, interactive devices, robotics, cybernetics, etc.

Digital transformation

“At a social level, digital transformation implies that constructive/useful improvements are increasing or redefining regular human activities, like voting, government services, education, medical care, etc.

At an organizational level, digital transformation refers to the conception and integration of digital capabilities into organizational processes, products and services which, in turn, improves the support and services available to people, communities and markets in the network.

Source (in French): Jon Husband, C’est quoi la transformation numérique? 10 experts répondent, Le lien multimédia, 2020

Disability Pride

Disability Pride is an annual event that is open to all. It aims to bring visibility to people with disabilities and push for their full inclusion in all aspects of life, spread awareness of the realities of their lives and transform the way the public views disability. It is a space for people with disabilities to affirm their presence and their uniqueness.

Disabled person

A person with a significant and persistent disability who is liable to encounter barriers in performing everyday activities. The preferred Canadian expression is “persons with disabilities.”

Types of disabilities:

Deaf or hard of hearing person NOT hearing impaired: Significant and persistent auditory acuity and discrimination limitations. Partial or no hearing.

Deaf person: The term preferred by the Deaf community, which has a very strong culture and identity. This community considers itself a linguistic and cultural minority with its own existential dimension, including a unique language (Quebec Sign Language), traditions, expressions and artistic norms.

D/deaf person: A collective noun used to refer to both “Deaf” people who identify with Deaf culture and “deaf” people who do not (Canadian Association of the Deaf).

Wheelchair user NOT wheelchair bound: Significant and persistent motor limitations. Upper and/or lower body.

Blind or low vision: Significant and persistent visual acuity and/or field of vision limitations. Partial or no sight. The term “person with a visual impairment” is also used.

Person with an intellectual disability or a cognitive difference: Lower-than-average cognitive function accompanied by adjustment difficulty, which manifests at a young age and is a permanent condition.

Autistic person: A neurodivergent person due to characteristics such as enhanced perceptual functioning, specific interests and a distinctive form of communication and socialization. Most autistic people prefer identity-first language.

Person with speech-language issues: Structural or developmental difficulty with receptive and/or expressive language.

Person with mental health issues: Changes in thinking, emotion, or behaviour, associated with significant distress and problems functioning. Another term used is mental health issues.


A distinction, exclusion or preference based on grounds prohibited by the Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms, and which has the effect of destroying or compromising the exercise of these rights and freedoms. These grounds are: race, colour, gender, pregnancy, sexual orientation, civil status, age except as stipulated by law, religion, political convictions, language, ethnic or national origin, social condition, disability or the use of a means to alleviate that disability. Discrimination can take the form of exclusion, distinction, preference, harassment or unfavourable


Voluntary transfer of an amount of money or an item for which the donor or patron receives nothing in exchange.

Source (in French): Le financement privé des arts et des lettres au Québec, Constats du CALQ, No 5, Juillet 2003



Eco-design refers to the integration of environmental considerations starting from the product design phase or, in this case, from the show design phase. The goal is to think beyond the show itself and to consider what will become of the set and costume materials once the show’s run has ended.

Source : Regroupement québécois de la danse

Emerging filmmaker

An emerging filmmaker has amassed some professional experience but may not yet have access to typical funding circuits.

Source: Support for emerging creators – SODEC

Environmental responsibility

Individual or entity that seeks to integrate environmental protection measures into its principles, activities and cultural productions with the goal of reducing their environmental impact.


A principle which involves impartiality and justice, as distinguished from equality: whereas equality is about providing everyone with the same access, equity is about recognizing that not everyone starts from the same point, and that there are imbalances that need to be corrected.

Established musical tradition

Music transmitted through oral or written tradition from teacher to student in an educational institution, or intergenerationally within a community or region, that is recognized by institutions in the field.

This can include instrumental or sung musical styles, generally with known origins, specific instruments, original contexts of execution, and musical aesthetics, among other elements. For example, baroque classical music, flamenco, jazz, contemporary classical music, Hindustani classical music (also known as Śāstriya Saṅgīt), or Mandika music.

Ethnic minorities (cultural minorities, ethnocultural minorities, cultural communities)

Allophone persons (see Allophone person or group) other than Indigenous peoples and members of a visible minority group.

Evaluation committee

Group of professionals working in a particular discipline or activity sector who are responsible for evaluating applications for financial aid. Committee members are selected on the basis of the
recognition they have earned in their respective fields of practice.


Fiscal sponsorship

Aid program that extends the general grant program. It allows recipient organizations to act as representatives of the Conseil des arts de Montréal as part of its fundraising activities in the private sector.

The program helps increase donations from individuals, foundations and businesses through fundraising activities or fundraising campaigns carried out by the representatives. Fiscal sponsorship broadens the Conseil’s ability to financially support Montreal arts organizations.

Fundraising activity

Activity to collect funds (in addition to those required to cover the costs of the activity) in order to support a cause, for example: benefit show, dinner, auction, athletic event, etc


Gender identity

Refers to the gender (e.g. woman, man, non-binary, etc.) with which a person identifies, regardless of what was checked off on their birth certificate; it is a profound and personal expression. For this reason, only the individual can determine their own identity (self-identification) and begin, if necessary, a transition journey that is right for them.

Gender-neutral writing

Gender-neutral writing in French “consists of using feminine linguistic markers alongside masculine linguistic markers, progressively doing away with the masculine generic (the use of the masculine to include both genders) and making the representation of women and men more equitable within a text by modifying structures, pronouns, style, gender agreement of nouns and adjectives, etc.

Gender-neutral writing is also referred to as “non-sexist writing.”

Source (in French): Office québécois de la langue française


Application of all of an organization’s means to fulfil its mission in a transparent and efficient manner that meets the expectations of its stakeholders.

Governance is structured by rules of accountability and operating principles, adopted by the organization’s Board of Directors in keeping with its strategic orientations, to ensure oversight for its management, assess its social and economic performance, and foster values of probity and excellence at every level of the organization.

Source: Governance in short, Institute for Governance of Private and Public Organizations (IGOPP)


Hard of Hearing (HoH)

A person with some hearing loss but whose auditory abilities allow them to understand human speech, with or without the use of hearing aids. These individuals may choose to use sign language, spoken language or a combination of the two in order to communicate with others.

Source : Canadian Association of the Deaf

Harmonious coexistence

The ability and willingness to share one’s living space harmoniously in an environment of social and cultural diversity.

Hybrid music

Musical style that borrows elements from multiple musical languages. Its defining quality involves mixing, fusing or combining two or more musical styles to create a new style.



Indigenous, Black and People of Colour.

Immigrant person

…first-generation, meaning one of the following:

• a person born outside of Canada who is, or has been, a landed immigrant to Canada

• a person born outside of Canada to parents who have Canadian citizenship by birth

• a person with temporary residency status (coming from another country and possessing a work or study permit or who is a refugee claimant, as well as family members who have accompanied this person to Canada)


… second-generation, meaning individuals born in Canada with at least one parent born outside of Canada; including:

• people born in Canada to two parents born outside of Canada

• people born in Canada to one parent born in Canada and another born outside of Canada (the grandparents of these people could be born in Canada or outside of Canada)

In situ

Work of art initially created for a specific location, but whose concept could be adapted afterward in order to be recreated in another location.


Principle which states that each person is a full member of a group and of society.

According to Michel Mercier, inclusion is a dialectical process in which, on one hand, the (physically or socially) disabled person attempts to adapt as much as possible to social norms and, on the other, social norms are adapted to accept greater differences by way of developing strategies within which each population with its own specific needs can find a place.

Source: Michel Mercier – Université de Namur, Université catholique de Lille, Belgique, author of L’identité handicapée, 2004.

Inclusive practices

Initiatives that support universal accessibility within arts organizations. These projects seek to create an open environment that welcomes and allows for the participation of artists or populations living with a disability (visible or invisible) or who are Deaf, or otherwise marginalized.

These practices foster the inclusion of given populations and support the participation of creators who are often excluded due to systemic and historic barriers while also taking individual and community needs into account.


Adjective describing members of the first populations (First Peoples) of an area. In Canada, this includes First Nations, Inuit and Métis. This term is used to describe the philosophy, culture, cosmology and rights of these First Peoples, in accordance with the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.

Source: United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, March 2008

Indigenous artists - First Nations, Inuit, Métis

In the context of the Conseil des arts de Montreal’s programs, this term refers to First Nations, Inuit and Métis artists living in Montreal who are recognized by their peers or by their community as artists committed to the continued practice of their art and art form – whether traditional or contemporary – and who distinguish themselves by their works and their potential through the creation and diffusion of original works of art.

Indigenous artists’ collective

For the Conseil des arts de Montréal’s Indigenous Arts Committee, this term refers to a one-time collaboration between at least two professional Indigenous artists with the goal of carrying out a common project requiring complementary or multiple practices and knowledge. A collective is not a legal entity and involves a project lead who acts on behalf of the collective.

Indigenous arts

Artistic practices recognized by Indigenous communities. Indigenous arts make up a full spectrum of artistic practices, whether they be sacred or ceremonial, traditional or contemporary, practiced collectively, by amateurs or professionals, or situated in between these various modes. “Art is not a specific thing. Art is process, movement and experience.”

Source: Aboriginal Arts Research Initiative, by France Trépanier for the Canada Council for the Arts, 2008

Indigenous arts organization

Non-profit organization headquartered in Quebec that offers artistic and professional services or activities. The organization’s Board of Directors must have a majority of Indigenous directors (First Nations, Inuit, Métis) who live in Quebec.

It must have a hiring policy that encourages hiring Indigenous employees, and leadership roles – especially director positions, such as executive director or artistic director – must be occupied by Indigenous individuals.

Indigenous cultural worker (effective or in training)

Indigenous individual currently, previously, or aspiring to occupy a coordinator, director or artistic director position within a professional or cultural entity (arts centre, cultural centre, professional association, museum, contemporary arts centre, event, gallery).

Indigenous intern

Indigenous individual learning about the experience of artistic practice or a professional career in the arts.

Indigenous mentor

Person who maintains a relationship based on accompaniment, collaboration and exchange. This could be a relationship with an Elder, an Indigenous person with professional experience within an arts or cultural organization or with a leader of an Indigenous community.

The mentor provides confidential professional or personal support to an Indigenous individual with less experience in a non-Indigenous or Indigenous context.


The interconnected nature of social categories such as race, class and gender, as they apply to a given individual or group, resulting in overlapping and interdependent systems of discrimination or disadvantage.

Source : City of Montréal, Guide ADS+101, 2020 (In French only)

Inuit, Inuk, Inuuk

Inuit refers to an Indigenous People living mainly in the Northernmost part of North America. Inuk is singular and Inuuk is dual (designating two people). When there are more than three individuals, the correct term is Inuit. In Inuktitut, the word Inuit means “people.” The preferred usage is therefore “Inuit,” without the determiner, and not “the Inuit.”


Mad Studies

A discipline that challenges what it means to be “sane” and examines different concepts of madness, surveying societal, medical, political, economic and cultural factors.

Mad, disability, neurodiverse and deaf arts

These arts encompass the practices and processes of ensuring that the lived experiences and identities of people with disabilities are conveyed, explored and represented.

Mad, disability and deaf arts must be produced by people with mental health issues, people with visible or invisible disabilities and D/deaf people. However, artists with mental health issues or disabilities or who are D/deaf do not necessarily produce mad, disability, neurodiverse or deaf art.

The words “Mad,” “disability,” “neurodiverse” and “deaf” are adjectives that qualify the word “art.” Rather than focusing on awareness and coping with stigma, Mad Pride focuses on expressing the unique ways people experience the world in terms of making meaning, developing communities and creating culture. Mad Arts is the artistic exploration of Mad Pride focusing on mad histories and identities.

Medical model vs. Social model

In the medical model, disability is caused by the particular physical or psychological constitution of the individual. In the social model, barriers stem from society.


Relationship based on accompaniment by a mentor, meaning an experienced, recognized and credible individual who, serving as a guide, counselor or role model in a formal or informal context, voluntarily provides confidential personal or professional support to a less-experienced person.

Source: Competency Chart and Profile – Mentors, Cultural Human Resources Council, version 1.0, 2005, p.4

Minority group (specific target group)

A diversity of realities exists, and in both its advocacy work and the actions it takes, the Conseil stresses the diversity of minority groups in the arts that it now sees as priorities: Indigenous peoples, racialized minorities, people from diverse ethnocultural communities, anglophones, women, people with disabilities, Deaf people and members of the LGBTQ2+ community.

Source: Racisme et discrimination systémiques dans les arts – Analyse et réflexions sur le parcours du Conseil des arts de Montréal, 2019 (In French only).

Multidisciplinary sector

A sector that includes presenting organizations (festivals, events, etc.), organizations dedicated to specific programming (such as seasonal programming and special events), organizations supporting the arts community (professional associations and service organizations) and organizations presenting or representing two or more artistic practices.

Musique actuelle

Experimental genre created in Quebec in the early 1980s in opposition to the popular commercial music of the era and to the snobbery of contemporary music. It reintroduced concepts of improvisation (composition and interpretation) to more “serious” music, which had been lacking them.

This style pulls from both techniques used or developed by composers and the technical skill of the instrumentalist-improviser, thereby placing itself at the crossroads of multiple aesthetics.


Synergy between two or more structures allowing for resources and skills to be shared, along with human, material or intangible resources, as part of a more or less formal and structural approach over a short, medium or long term, with the goal of strengthening networks.


National association

Legally incorporated association of organizations from Quebec or Canada that is representative of a discipline and has the goal of coordinating its members’ actions around issues facing development and outreach in their field. This association must collect annual dues from its members to finance its operations.

Source (in French): Lexique CALQ


Neurodiversity is a concept that refers to both the neurological variability of the human population and the movements that seeks recognition and acceptance of these differences. Autism spectrum disorder, Asperger’s syndrome, giftedness, intellectual disabilities or differences, aphasia, ADHD and prosopagnosia are all included in this definition. Neurodiversity is a natural form of human diversity. 

New artistic practices

Interdisciplinary or multidisciplinary practices, or practices that do not fall under any traditional disciplines These are primarily characterized by the fact that they go beyond the frame of experiences that currently define these disciplines, overturn established ideas on what art is and widen horizons for art, artists and their relationship with the audience, communities and the general public.

New artistic practices include political art, collaborations between science and art, or between public and community art and rituals, to give just a few examples.

Newcomer to Canada

Immigrant who has lived in Canada for less than five years.

Non-disciplinary artistic practices

Non-disciplinary artistic practices are generally characterized by the exploration of new research, creation or production practices, experimentation with novel collaborations and/or innovative presentation methods. They reflect a desire to break out of traditionally supported disciplines and to juxtapose or merge them.

The artistic process that lies at the heart of these practices reveals an intention to challenge existing and established frameworks, including the performance venue or non-venue, stakeholders and their roles, and the encounter (or non-encounter) with spectators or an audience. They can include but are not limited to the following: interdisciplinary or multidisciplinary art, politically or socially engaged art, relationship-based or community-based art as well as collaborations between art and other spheres of society (science, sports, environment, technology, etc.) and rituals.

Non-established musical tradition

Musical forms associated with various social contexts within population groups (music for specific events or rites of passage, music that accompanies specific dances, etc.) and that are generally transmitted orally, without written records.

Examples include Brazilian samba, music associated with Santería in Latin America and the songs of African griots. In the context of the Conseil’s programs, these musical forms must be interpreted by professional musicians.


Operating grants

A subsidy provided to support all activities carried out in accordance with the recipient organization’s mandate. This type of grant may be provided for two or four years.


Parent organization

An organization is considered to be the parent of another when it has the ability to directly or indirectly control the other. Two or more entities can operate under the control of the same parent organization.


Practice which involves the real-time presence of an artist in a context or location. For example: body art, action art, performance installations in situ, cabaret, monologues and improvisations.


Carrying out acts for the benefit of others without return, inspiring a tradition of giving and sharing that is essential to improving quality of life. The word comes from the Ancient Greek “philanthrôpia”, which means “love of humanity”.

Sources (in French): Association des professionnels en philanthropie and Espaces à idées

Pluridisciplinary presentation

Presentation of an artistic program including contributions from a variety of disciplines or genres. This could be seasonal, event-based or festival programming.


“A program (as of music or talk) made available in digital format for automatic download over the Internet” that can be transferred to a digital device for later listening or watching. Source: Merriam-Webster English Dictionary

Production / diffusion

Action following the creation of a work, consisting of publicly carrying out and presenting a work of art, project, activity, etc.

Professional artist

An individual with a professional artistic practice who possesses the necessary experience and knowledge to develop this practice. This includes self-taught individuals as well as those who have studied art.

This person is recognized in their artistic community (artists working in the same artistic tradition), creates, carries out or publishes works of art, is dedicated to their artistic practice and is generally paid for their work.

Professional arts organization

Legally incorporated non-profit organization (NPO) that regularly presents recognized artistic activities, possesses a recognized level of competence and is able to demonstrate such competence. This organization is led by qualified personnel and employs artists and cultural professionals.

Professional association

Legally established association of artists working in the same field for the purpose of defending their professional and socioeconomic interests and which operates in accordance with the accreditation granted by the Commission de reconnaissance des associations d’artistes et des associations de producteurs (CRAAAP) or the Quebec Commission des relations de travail (CRT). This type of association must be incorporated in accordance with all laws that regulate the status of artists in Quebec and fulfill the associative functions contained within such regulations. For example, it must collect annual dues from its members.

Source: Lexique CALQ

Project grant

A one-time, non-recurring subsidy provided to organizations or professional artists’ collectives for research, development or production of a work of art, an activity or a program

Public space

Physical space that is freely accessible to the public (residents, clients or passers-by) regardless of its legal status as public or private. This includes spaces such as a street, beaches, parks, forests and shopping centres.

Source (in French): Le grand dictionnaire terminologique, Gouvernement du Québec


Quebec Sign Language (QSL)

A language with a specific set of rules that developed independently of French or any other oral language system. It is distinct from American Sign Language (ASL) and from French Sign Language and is used by the Deaf community in Quebec as well as some other regions in Canada.

Source: Canadian Association of the Deaf



The concept of race is a social construct allowing one group to subjugate another. The person or group who is the object of the process of racialization is “racialized”. The terms “racialization” and “racialized” have the benefit of making clear the fact that “race” is an invented category and not a biological reality. The process of racialization creates an effect of othering, diminishing and excluding.

Source (in French): Glossary | Ligue des droits et libertés

Racialized person

Person likely to be labelled in a racial category or perceived as being “other” and not belonging to the majority group. This term does not describe a quality inherent to a person, but a social characteristic: not an identity, but a position in society resulting from the collective process of racialization.

Source (in French): Comprendre les enjeux de l’inclusion en danse, Regroupement québécois de la danse, p.12


An ideology based on the notion that people and groups are unequal on ethnic or “racial” grounds. Racism is a multidimensional set of ideas, attitudes and actions aimed at or resulting in the social, economic, cultural and political undermining of ethnocultural and national groups, thus preventing them from benefiting fully from the advantages granted to all citizens. It translates into prejudice, discrimination, segregation and violence, and involves power relations between social groups, which have a stigmatizing, justifying and dominating function, and whose logic of inferiorization and discrimination can vary in time and space. White supremacy is inherent to this ideology, which sees race as a biological (rather than socially constructed) category. The pseudoscience of racial theories has been used to legitimize the enslavement and exploitation of Indigenous and racialized people for centuries.

Source : Amnistie internationale, Lexique pour l’antiraciste (In French only)

Recent or novel musical forms

Musical styles that emerged during the second half of the 20th century, often, but not exclusively, in urban contexts, as well as fusions of music from different cultures or contexts or involving the use of technology to create a new musical language. Some examples: compa, musique actuelle, rap, reggae, zouglou, etc.

Relational model

In the relational model (developed by Kafer) disability is always a political category. Ableism intersects with other forms of oppression such as racism, sexism, homophobia, transphobia and classism. This model also serves as critical engagement with the medical model because persons with disabilities may be oppressed by the very medical system that they must turn to for care.

Source : Alison Kafer, Feminist, Queer, Crip (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2013).

Relaxed performance

Presentation (e.g., film screening, theatre performance) that creates welcoming and flexible conditions that can adapt to the needs of different groups, such as people with a sensory or intellectual disability or a neurological or learning disorder, parents with young children or infants, etc.

Research / development

Preliminary step or preparatory and experimental stage leading up to the realization of a work, project, activity, etc.


Resilience refers to the ability to continue developing after experiencing a trauma or difficult experience in adverse conditions.

Source (in French): Boris Cyrulnik, neuropsychiatrist: “L’opération Résilience est un affrontement de la nation contre le virus”


Service organization

Organization that responds to development needs in a specific field. It supports artists’ professional artistic practices, organizations in the field and writers via a variety of activities and services.

This organization must possess the human, technical and material resources required to carry out its mission and must generate a significant amount of work and revenue in relationship to its field, the region it serves and the context and conditions under which it carries out its mission.

Source: Lexique CALQ

Sign language

Refers to a language that has a specific set of rules and that was developed independently of French, English or any other oral language system.

Source: Canadian Association of the Deaf

Social cohesion

The result of a series of actions promoting respect for diversity and togetherness. As a result, all members of society, at every stage of their lives, feel accepted and recognized, regardless of their cultural or ethnic heritage, gender or sexual orientation, age, religion, political affiliations or family, social or physical condition. Extreme social exclusion is poverty and homelessness, and comprehensive, integrated action must be taken to overcome these barriers.

Source : City of Montréal, Social Development Policy

Special project

Exceptional non-recurring activity carried out by an organization that receives support and operates biannually or quadrennially. The special project must fall outside of the organization’s regular activities while still complementing them.


Donations earmarked to fund a charitable activity in exchange for publicity or promotion of the sponsor’s brand, products or services.

Source: What is sponsorship?, Government of Canada, 2016

Strategies for accessing amateur artistic practice

Refers to a strategy that allows Montrealers to actively participate in a creative process and experience a cultural activity first-hand. In this context, a specialized activity leader can use a cultural mediation approach to allow participants and amateur artists to share in the creative process. This activity leader may be a professional artist.

Source (in French): Pratique artistique amateur | La médiation culturelle à la Ville de Montréal

Strategies for accessing amateur artistic practice

Refers to a strategy that allows Montrealers to actively participate in a creative process and experience a cultural activity first-hand.

In this context, a specialized activity leader can use a cultural mediation approach to allow participants and amateur artists to share in the creative process. This activity leader may be a professional artist.

Source (in French): Pratique artistique amateur | La médiation culturelle à la Ville de Montréal

Street art

Practices that situate an artistic project in public space. Street art draws from theatre, circus and acrobatic arts, music, dance, pyrotechnics and many other art forms. Fusion styles that blend disciplines are common, as are efforts to renew conventional forms or develop dramaturgy, such as the field of non-textual writing.

Street art shows can manifest in a variety of open spaces, either fixed or roaming, ranging in scale from intimate to enormous. Artists adapt themselves to the locations in which they work, whether in cityscapes, suburban or rural regions, indoors or outdoors.

Ultimately, an original relationship to the audience that is founded on interaction and the involvement of spectators—who are free to go or to stay and watch the entire piece—is an essential element of street art.

Subtitling and surtitling

Translation of audio content by subtitles or surtitles that appear on stage or on a screen and which allow Deaf and hard-of-hearing individuals, or individuals who don’t speak the language, to attend and understand an artistic presentation or other activity.

Systemic racism

A concept which refers to the entire societal structure maintaining a system of inequalities that favours or oppresses specific racial groups in society. While these inequalities bestow advantages upon white people, they also undermine the rights of racialized and Indigenous people. The word “systemic” refers to the concept of a system. Discrimination perpetuated within systems is not experienced systematically, nor is it always imposed deliberately. As with sexism, racism is an inherited system of which we are not always aware. It differs from overt discrimination in that no individual or institutional intent is required.

“In Québec and Canada, systemic racism manifests itself in all areas of social life: in police interventions and the judicial system, health care, access to the labour market, the cultural sector and the media, people of Black, Indigenous and racialized backgrounds suffer discrimination disproportionately to the rest of the population.”

Source :  Amnistie internationale, Lexique pour l’antiraciste (In French only)


Tax receipt

Official written proof that a donation was made to a registered charity. These receipts can reduce income tax paid by the individual or business that made the donation. Because of this benefit, the receipt must contain certain elements.

Source: Registered Charities: Donations and Receipts Educaloi


An inclusive adjective which refers to all people who do not identify with the gender assigned to them at birth. What these people have in common is their transness, i.e. the fact of being trans. Some are trans socially or medically, binary or non-binary.


Universal accessibility

Founded on inclusion, universal accessibility affords each and everyone, no matter their disabilities, an identical or similar usage, the autonomous and simultaneous access to services offered to the general population.

Universal design

Concept of designing all products and the built environment to be aesthetic and usable to the greatest extent possible by everyone, regardless of their age, ability, or status in life. Where universal accessibility is the goal, universal design is the approach.

Source: Société Logique

Urban music

Identifiable by the presence of urban musical phenomena created within Black culture in the United States—rap and R&B being the most well-known examples—this musical style makes use of modern electronic instruments and other automated techniques of sound production, over which rappers may recite written lines in a flow.

This may also be layered over the sound of someone beatboxing. In Montreal, urban music includes urban Latin-American and Caribbean musical styles like reggaeton, champeta and dancehall, as well as African styles of music like zouglou, ndombolo, and others. Local hip-hop music often includes artists speaking multiple different languages.


Variety show

Assemblage of artistic productions generally associated with mass entertainment and the for-profit arts industry.

Visible minorities

According to the Employment Equity Act, visible minorities are defined as “persons, other than Aboriginal people, who are non-Caucasian in race or non-white in colour”.